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Handy Linux Commands

Posted: Oct 12, 2008 14:10;
Last Modified: Dec 13, 2010 18:12

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This is a list of handy linux commands (and sites) with sources.

TOC


Bash Prompt

Here’s a site with more than you ever wanted to know about modifying the bash prompt: http://www.linuxselfhelp.com/howtos/Bash-Prompt/Bash-Prompt-HOWTO.html


Change/Add SSH Port

Comment
Source

http://forums.spry.com/showthread.php?t=98"


Check Disk Space

Command
df

or (for human units)

df -h
Output
Filesystem           1K-blocks      Used Available Use% Mounted on
/dev/sda1             29063196   4422116  23176356  17% /
varrun                 1031260       132   1031128   1% /var/run
varlock                1031260         0   1031260   0% /var/lock
udev                   1031260        60   1031200   1% /dev
devshm                 1031260        56   1031204   1% /dev/shm
lrm                    1031260     39976    991284   4% /lib/modules/2.6.24-21-rt/volatile
/dev/sdb1            197572288  52957424 134657780  29% /home
/dev/sda2             43598860    928936  40472636   3% /var

or with @-h option:

Filesystem            Size  Used Avail Use% Mounted on
/dev/sda1              28G  4.3G   23G  17% /
varrun               1008M  132K 1007M   1% /var/run
varlock              1008M     0 1008M   0% /var/lock
udev                 1008M   60K 1008M   1% /dev
devshm               1008M   56K 1008M   1% /dev/shm
lrm                  1008M   40M  969M   4% /lib/modules/2.6.24-21-rt/volatile
/dev/sdb1             189G   51G  129G  29% /home
/dev/sda2              42G  908M   39G   3% /var
gvfs-fuse-daemon       28G  4.3G   23G  17% /home/dan/.gvfs
Additional common options

If you give the file name of a device (e.g. /dev/sda1), output will be restricted to that device. See man df for a list of more obscure and specialised options.

Comment

Forevergeek has a handy script:

    #!/bin/sh

    DISC=$1
    PARTITION=`df -h |grep $DISC |awk ‘{print $1}’`
    SIZE=`df -h|grep $DISC|awk ‘{print $2}’`
    USED=`df -h|grep $DISC|awk ‘{print $3}’`
    FREE=`df -h|grep $DISC|awk ‘{print $4}’`

    echo “Partition: $PARTITION”
    echo “Total size: $SIZE”
    echo “Used space: $USED”
    echo “Free space: $FREE”

Presumably this could be modified to accept human disk names, as well.

Source

http://forevergeek.com/linux/check_disk_space_in_linux.php"


Check Distribution Version

Command

lsb_release -a

Output
Distributor ID:	Ubuntu
Description:	Ubuntu 8.04.1
Release:	8.04
Codename:	hardy
Additional common options
       -i, --id
              Display the distributor’s ID.

       -d, --description
              Display a description of the currently installed distribution.

       -r, --release
              Display the release number of the currently installed  distribu‐
              tion.

       -c, --codename
              Display the code name of the currently installed distribution.

       -a, --all
Comment

This provides certain LSB (Linux Standard Base) and distribution-specific information. It doesn’t seem to provide kernel information (see uname).

Source

http://www.cse.psu.edu/~lstclair/Howtos/release.html. See also man page


Check kernel version

Command

uname -r

Output
2.6.22-14-generic
Additional common options
       -a, --all
              print  all  information,  in the following order, except omit -p
              and -i if unknown:

       -s, --kernel-name
              print the kernel name

       -n, --nodename
              print the network node hostname

       -r, --kernel-release
              print the kernel release

       -v, --kernel-version
              print the kernel version

       -m, --machine
              print the machine hardware name

       -p, --processor
              print the processor type or "unknown"

       -i, --hardware-platform
              print the hardware platform or "unknown"

       -o, --operating-system
              print the operating system
Comment

This checks the kernel version, but even with the -a option doesn’t provide the distribution information (for which see: lsb_release).

Source

None. See man page.


Discover Volume Information

Command

vol_id /dev/sdb1

Output
ID_FS_USAGE=filesystem
ID_FS_TYPE=ext3
ID_FS_VERSION=1.0
ID_FS_UUID=1384715c-0842-45eb-ac19-6da68568aaa3
ID_FS_UUID_ENC=1384715c-0842-45eb-ac19-6da68568aaa3
ID_FS_LABEL=
ID_FS_LABEL_ENC=
ID_FS_LABEL_SAFE=
Additional common options
-u Display UUID only
Comment

UUIDs are now used to identify volumes in things like /etc/fstab; by identifying them by UUID instead of dev, you don’t have the problem of disks changing name if they are installed in a different order next time.

Source

http://ubuntuforums.org/showpost.php?p=1942898&postcount=8":


mogrify Command line image editing

Command

mogrify {options} filename

Output

Mogrify overwrites the original image unless you specify a path option. It always uses the same file name unless you change it with an extension.

Use -path – to write to standard input or output

Additional common options

-scale xx%
-path

Comment

This is part of imagemagick.

Source

wget

Command

wget {options} URL

Output

Wget gets remote files and copies them to output file. Use -O - to write to standard output.

Additional common options
Comment
Source

Add datestamp to filenames (bulk)

from: http://www.linuxquestions.org/questions/linux-newbie-8/script-add-date-to-filename-188760/

# script=dname
#parameter  $1 is the existing file name
dt=`date +%y%m%d`
mv $1 $1$dt

Change file datestamp with touch

touch -t 199903190000 *

(Changes all the files in a given directory to datestamp 19990319T0000)


Discover IP address of local computer

from: http://ubuntuforums.org/showpost.php?p=1133053&postcount=2

ifconfig / iwconfig

or

ip addr show

or

ip route

Update DynDNS addresses with ddclient

From: http://www.dyndns.com/support/kb/using_ddclient_with_dyndns_services.html http://ubuntuguide.org/wiki/Dynamic_IP_servers and https://help.ubuntu.com/community/DynamicDNS


Patching Kernel.

See http://www.question-defense.com/2010/09/26/how-to-recompile-your-ubuntu-10-10-kernel-for-patching-or-to-add-support-for-a-specific-device

This method worked well for me, except that in the last couple of steps, the names weren;t obviously what the discussion led me to believe (the .deb files had very long extensions and the files in /lib/modules/ used – rather than + as the connector. I’m also not sure that I ended up with the most recent kernel—I need to discover how the number in the kernel revisions system works. When the patching was over and I rebooted, the appearance was different.

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